Babur, Zahir ad-Din Muhammad

Babur, Zahir ad-Din Muhammad (14.2.1483-26.12.1530). “Babur” means “lion, commander, leopard” and is derived from the Persian word for “tiger.” Central Asian and Timurid ruler of India and Afghanistan, founder of Baburid dynasty and empire, in some sources – as Great Mogul empire (1526). Nowadays he is known as a prominent Uzbek poet and writer.
Babur was born in Andijan in the family of Fergana emir Umar-shaykh-mirza II, great-grandson of Timurid sultan Miran-shah, the third son of Tamerlane. Babur was Timurid on his father’s side, and his mother was of Chingizid lineage. He regarded the Chagatai Turks as his mother tongue, but was also fluent in Persian.
Babur’s mother Kutlug-Nigar-khanim (1459-1505) was descended from Chingizids, she was the daughter of the Mogulistan ruler Yunus-khan.
Ruler of Fergana in 1494-1504 years, the ruler of Kabul in 1504-1526, head of the Timurid Empire with the title Padishah in 1507-1526, ruler of Maverannahr in 1497-1498 and 1511-1512, ruler of Kandahar in 1512-1526, padishah Hindustan in 1526-1530.
In 1497 he managed to grasp Samarkand, however, he ruled it less than four months. In the struggle for power in Maverannahr, he faced the experienced Chingizid Sheibani Khan, who was already 50 years old. The internecine strife among the Timurids led to Babur’s defeat.
In 1500-1505 he was driven by Sheibani Khan to Afghanistan, where he founded a new state with its capital in Kabul. Babur took the title of padishah. In Kabul in 1508 he built the Garden of Allegiance. Until 1512 unsuccessfully tried to regain Bukhara and Samarkand. With the support of Persians Babur managed to take Samarkand, but after dissatisfaction of the local population with his rule, Babur left the city. Since 1514, Babur abandoned his claims to Central Asia, his goal was India.
Since 1519, Babur campaigned from Kabul to Northwest India.
After his conquest of North India, Babur took possession of the famous Kohinoor diamond, which was later passed from one Baburid to another until it ended up in the treasury in London.
By 1529 Babur’s possessions included eastern Afghanistan, Punjab and the Ganges valley to the borders of Bengal.
In 1530, shortly before his death, Babur sent an ambassador to the Grand Duke of Moscow, Vasily Ivanovich. The ambassador did not reach Moscow until 1533.
Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur left rich literary and scientific heritage during his 47 years of life. He wrote the world-famous “Babur-name”, original and fine lyrical works (ghazals, rubai), treatises on Muslim jurisprudence (“Mubain”), poetics (“Aruz risolasi”), music, military science, and also a special alphabet “Hatt-i Baburi”.
The merit of Babur as a historian, geographer, ethnographer, prose-writer and poet is now recognized by the world oriental science. His legacy is being studied in almost all major centers of Oriental studies around the world.
On December 26, 1530 Babur had died in Agra, India, probably, from dysentery. According to his will, his remains were moved to Kabul to the garden he founded. A mausoleum was later built there.
Before his death, Babur divided his possessions among his four sons. The eldest son, Humayun, inherited the Indian possessions (Hindustan), while the other sons received Panjab, Kabul and Kandahar and had to submit to Humayun as the supreme ruler of the empire.
From different wives Babur had 9 sons and 9 daughters, many of whom died at an early age or in infancy.
The Osh State Uzbek musical and dramatic theater, named after Babur, was founded in the city of Osh in 1918. It is named after Z. M. Babur is also the name of the school No. 43

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