History Of Kyrgyzstan
On this territory, until the emergence of modern Kyrgyzstan, Homo Neanderthals inhabited this land, traces of whom were found on the mountain Boz-Barmak (near Issyk Kul lake). Five to ten thousand years ago on the shores of Issyk-Kul lake,there were Mesolithic hunters, who painted cave walls of Ak-Chunkur with red ocher, depicting hunting scenes and dances.
In the II century BC, Scythians who called themselves the Saks, formed the first state formations on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan. In the V century, there was a mass migration of Ethtalitian tribes (“White Huns”), who formed a large government in all the Central Asian space. In the early Middle Ages, the Turks lived here, who were direct descendants of the Saks.
In the VII century, the territory of Kyrgyzstan became the Western Turkic Khaganate, in the VIII century, after its collapse, the territory became a part of Karluk Khaganate.
In the XII century, Uzgen and Balasagun cities became centres of Karakhanid government whose religion was Islam.
In IX-XII centuries, in Southern Siberia, upper Irtysh and East Turkistan was a government association of Kyrgyz Khanate, which up until the arrival of the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan has been one of the most powerful governments in the region.
In the XIII century, the lands were conquered by modern Kyrgyzstan Moguls and entered the Chagatai ulus from which a semi Mogolistan developed in 1437.
A lack of unity in the face of threats, gathering power from the son of Genghis Khan Dzhuchi, allowed to win the troops of the Kyrgyz from the Yenisei. According to China’s manuscript of 1770, “Xiyu zhi”, Kyrgyz “fleeing unrest” have appeared in the Tien-Shan mountains in the middle of the XV century. Rulers of an emerged Kokand khanate in the Fergana Valley in the XVIII century have selected Kyrgyz land as one of the main targets of their aggressive policy. The Kokand khans managed to subdue most of the Kyrgyz tribes, using their fragmentation and inter-tribal fighting. The Kyrgyz tribes remained an integral part of the Kokand khanate for more than a century and a half (1710-1876). At the time, there were many settlements built, including Pishkek and Tokmok fortresses.
From the middle of the XIX century, some tribes have attempted to seek protection from more powerful neighbours. In 1876, Russian troops defeated the Kokand Khanate and occupied the territory of Northern Kyrgyzstan. In the late XIX century, migrants began arriving from Russia and Ukraine. Another wave of immigrants has been registered after the suppression of Dungan in China and their penetration into Central Asia.
Russian government was noted by many Russian actions. Russian experts have begun a large-scale resettlement, road construction, opening of schools and set the stage for the mining industry.
The tsar government did not interfere in the life of the Kyrgyz, however World War I led to the need to mobilise the population for trench work. As a result, on 10 August,1916 an uprising occurred which engulfed Russian Turkestan, including the nomadic Kyrgyz and Kazakhs. Wrath of the rebels primarily attacked Russian settlers. The uprising was brutally suppressed. Almost half of the Issyk-Kul region of the Kyrgyz population was exterminated. Part of the Kyrgyz population fled to China, where later on the border of Xinjiang province, a Kyzylsu-Kyrgyz Autonomous Region was established.
In Soviet times, as a result of the policies of the national-territorial demarcation, a Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous region was first formed (14 October, 1924), and then transformed into the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1 February, 1926), and finally, the area became known as the Kyrgyz SSR on 5 December, 1936.
The Soviet government has made some changes in the life of Kyrgyz people. In 1917, the equality of men and women was proclaimed, in 1921, polygamy and dowry (ransom of a bride) became illegal.
In the 1920-1930s, there was a rapid development of industry in Kyrgyzstan. By 1940, coal mines of Kyrgyzstan gave 88% of coal, which was used in Central Asia. There were also non-ferrous metals, production of antimony and mercury, food (sugar) and some light industry being developed. By 1941, there were approximately 300,000 livestock farms in Kyrgyzstan.
As a result of Stalin’s repression, which peaked in the 1936-1938, scientific and creative intelligentsia as well as Muslim clerics were almost completely destroyed. During repression, books and manuscripts in Arabic were destroyed.
Kyrgyzstan’s industrialisation continued in parallel with the development of agriculture, even after the Second World War. In the early 1980s, there was a movement for the establishment of contacts with Kyrgyz people living in other regions of the USSR, China and Afghanistan.
A democratic movement of Kyrgyzstan started in 1990 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In October 1990, the first president of Kyrgyzstan was elected. On 31 August, 1991, the government declared an independence of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Financial difficulties associated with the transition to a market economy have begun, exacerbating ethnic conflicts. The very first Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as an independent sovereign state was accepted on 5 May,1993.
Its own national currency – som – has been introduced on 10 May,1993.
In 1993, the country was shaken by its first corruption scandal linked to the name of the Prime Minister – Tursunbek Chyngyshev. Another government crisis triggered reform in 1994, in which Parliament became bicameral. Meanwhile, the country was becoming a major staging post of export of Afghan drugs. The key centre of Kyrgyz drug dealing became the city of Osh.
In 1999 and 2000, Batken events rocked Kyrgyzstan when fighters of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan tried to break from Tajikistan through Kyrgyzstan to Uzbekistan. In 2001, a U.S. air base Manas was posted in Kyrgyzstan.
The first symptom of the crisis was the Aksy events in 2002 – the clash between the public and the police. Then came the Tulip Revolution on 24 March, 2005, completing a 15-year ruling of President Askar Akayev (1990-2005). The new president became a representative of the “poor South” Kurmanbek Bakiyev (2005-2010), who failed to stabilise the country. Bakiyev was ousted from power during the next revolution on 7 April, 2010. The power passed down to the interim government led by the leader of a previous revolution Roza Otunbayeva. Clashes between new and old power provoked ethnic conflict between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in the south of the country, during which more than 200 people were killed and hundreds of thousands of Uzbeks fled the country.
A referendum was held on 27 June, 2010, which confirmed the authority of Roza Otunbayeva as the head of state, for a transitional period up to 2011, and a new constitution was adopted, confirming a parliamentary form of government in the country.(Kyrgyz Travel)